ABOUT SEA INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION AND FORMS OF SHIPPING

ABOUT SEA INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION AND FORMS OF SHIPPING

The lowest tariffs for cargo transportation services are provided by sea. Several criteria greatly influence price formation and reduce the cost of imported goods. The distance of transportation, huge volumes of consignments, wide geography, safety and security play a crucial role when calculating shipping costs. Any type of cargo is packed into 20 or 40-foot containers and stored on a bulk carrier barge. International shipping involves the use of two systems for organizing maritime deliveries:

  • Linear – characterized by systematic voyages and belonging ships to certain routes, the development of a stable working schedule, and detailed calculation of the number of transport units operating on one route;
  • Tramp – single voyages, characterized by the lack of regularity in the formation of routes. Each shipping is carried out after collecting the required volume of the consignment in the right direction, regardless of the previous route; the ports of destination and departure of the cargo ship change.

Sea freight of goods by the tramp service method uses tariffs in accordance with the market conditions at a given time. The linear kind of transportation is characterized by the scheduling of traffic between the same ports according to the schedule, seasonality, and strict periodicity. Linear service tariffs do not change over the period of contract validity, which is concluded once a year, updating the terms of cooperation.

Features of the Tramp and Linear Method of Shipment Organizing

The organization of liner transportation by shipping transport requires the following measures and technical solutions:

  • the selection of ships of the same type with the same characteristics – carrying capacity, speed, equipment;
  • transport must have the same operational characteristics.

The regularity of goods delivery is the main advantage of the organization of liner service for the ports of departure and arrival. Due to the impressive volume of containers, carriers form international shipments in groupage lots. Several ships operate on the same route to ensure fast cargo deliveries. Special loading and unloading equipment of appropriate size and lifting capacity are on ports. Most of the ports in the world use a linear mode of cargo delivery by sea.

Shipping on sea lines is carried out in accordance with two systems of transportation:

  • by bill of lading;
  • by charter.

The first type of transportation is carried out based on international legal norms and standards and is suitable for a linear type of service with regular freights and a long-term type of cooperation. When concluding a contract for transport services, the parties strictly comply with the imperative norms of agreements and international conventions.

Charter service differs from the previous option because the cooperation of suppliers is not regulated by international legal agreements and other regulations. This type of service is suitable for the tramp service system when it is necessary to conclude one-time contracts for the supply of a certain volume of products. Contractual relationships are regulated on the basis of national legislation. The dispositive nature of the legal norms of national legislation gives the freedom to choose contractual terms between a consignor, consignee, and carrier.

In the field of merchant shipping, there is another form of a contractual relationship, when one of the parties leases a vessel without a maintenance team or with a full crew. This type of cooperation is called leasing.